This Guardian (U.K.) article ("Bankers teach U.S. students how to avoid financial pitfalls") highlights efforts to improve financial literacy skills for high schoolers:
Bad news: "Only Missouri, Tennessee and Utah require high school students to have a semester of personal finance, according to the Jumpstart Coalition, a national group that promotes youth financial literacy."
Good news: California is making progress towards a comprehensive financial literacy program:
Here is a PDF of the bill. Here is the main body of the bill, which I must admit seems a bit sparse in detail and measurable results, but I guess it is a start: